not "Aedes Panthei" (temple of all the gods). [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. [2], The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. Embed review. The Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Italian: Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Italian pronunciation: [ˈsanta maˈriːa madˈdʒoːre]; Latin: Basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris), or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Papal major basilica and the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy.. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. 7.12). 5.8K likes. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi, and Flaminio Vacca. The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. The altar with the royal arms is by Cirilli. After that was done, he consecrated it to St. Mary and Martyrs and then moved the remains of the martyrs to a porphyry basin under the high altar. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres (12 in) to promote water run off.[62][63]. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. In fact, it has become a mausoleum that houses the remains of distinguished French citizens. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. Though the idea of having one church to worship all gods seems questionable, some people suspected that the building was … The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns under a … [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. Linda E. Cambridge, MA. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Piazza della Rotonda – 00186 – ROMA. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. 23 maggio 2020: Anniversario Ordinazione di Padre Serge La comunità tutta di S Maria ad Martyres si stringe a Padre Serge nel giorno che ricorda il suo Sì alla Chiesa, al Vangelo, a Cristo. [6], The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. Hadrian's temple was dedicated to the classical gods – hence the name Pantheon, a derivation of the Greek words pan (all) and theos (god) – but in AD 608 it was consecrated as a Christian church and it's now officially known as the Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres. Basilica di Santa Maria del Popolo. Pantheon - Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres - Roma's cover photo . It is said that 28 carts of sacred bones were transported from the Catacombs to here. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. Chiesa di San Luigi dei Francesi . The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. Basilica collegiata di Santa Maria ad Martyres; ... o Santa Maria ad Martyres, il che gli ha consentito di sopravvivere quasi integro alle spoliazioni inflitte dai papi agli edifici della Roma classica. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Note that the Pantheon is a functioning church. The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. Santa Maria sopra Minerva is situated 130 metres southeast of Pantheon. [citation needed]. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. Therefore, the remains of the martyrs were transferred to the catacombs under the main altar, resulting in the Basilica also becoming a mausoleum. Grazie per le tue mani che consacrano, benedicono, accompagnano, curano. The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. The Pantheon, literally means all gods, was originally dedicated to every gods in ancient Roman time. The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. [71], Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original,[72] Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826). Gode del rango di basilica minore ed è l'unica basilica di Roma oltre a quelle patriarcali ad avere ancora un capitolo. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. Basilica di Santa Maria in Ara Coeli. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. 4.6K likes. Basilica di S. Maria ad Martyres – PANTHEON. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The doors are massive bronze doors. 6.6K likes. [51] Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison[53] found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". The Pantheon Basilica is dedicated to St. Mary and Martyrs since then. Prefecture: I. The dedication is to the Blessed Virgin Maryand to all the martyrs of the city of Rome. Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, Lazio, Italy. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=992354073#Cardinal_deaconry, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44. 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